The first New York City Marathon, organized in 1970 by Fred Lebow and Vince Chiappetta, was held entirely in Central Park. Of 127 entrants, only 55 men finished; the sole female entrant dropped out due to illness. Winners were given inexpensive wristwatches and recycled baseball and bowling trophies. The entry fee was $1 and the total event budget was $1,000.
In 1976, Lebow and 2,090 entrants took the New York City Marathon to the streets of the five boroughs in a moving celebration of sport and diversity. The course included five bridges, and winners Bill Rodgers and Miki Gorman shattered the event records.
Two years later, at the 1978 New York City Marathon, Grete Waitz of Norway, a track Olympian who’d never run farther than 12 miles, won the race in a world-record 2:32:30. Rodgers overcame 75-degree temperatures to become the race’s first three-time winner, and he added a fourth the next year, when Waitz broke her own world record.
In 1980, NCAA track champion Alberto Salazar boldly predicted that he would run sub-2:10 in his first marathon. He made good on his promise by winning in 2:09:41, the fastest-ever debut by an American, while Waitz captured her third straight victory and set another world record. Salazar won again in both 1981 and 1982.
The 1992 race produced perhaps the most poignant moment in New York City Marathon history when Lebow, in remission from brain cancer, crossed the line in 5:32:34 with Waitz by his side.
Shortly before the race’s 25th anniversary in 1994, Fred Lebow succumbed to cancer and Allan Steinfeld became race director. Gérman Silva of Mexico famously took a wrong turn into Central Park in the 26th mile and came back to win. Women’s champ Tegla Loroupe, a Kenyan, became the first female African winner of a major marathon.
The marathon has always been an exercise in community spirit, and that was especially true in November 2001, less than two months after the September 11 terrorist attacks. The race became a symbol of hope and renewal for participants, spectators, and all New Yorkers. Patriotism ran high as Deena Drossin (later Kastor) ran 2:26:58, the fastest debut by an American woman, to win the national title.
ING, a global financial services company, became the marathon’s first title sponsor in 2003 and joined with NYRR to initiate grassroots running and fitness programs among the city’s youth. Margaret Okayo of Kenya broke her own course record, running 2:22:31.
In 2004, world record-holder Paula Radcliffe of Great Britain won the women’s race by three seconds over Kenya’s Susan Chepkemei in the closest women’s finish in race history. Edith Hunkeler of Switzerland set a women’s wheelchair course record by six minutes.
The 2005 race saw yet another close finish as world record-holder Paul Tergat of Kenya edged defending champion Hendrick Ramaala of South Africa by a mere three-tenths of a second. Ernst Van Dyk of South Africa set a course record of 1:31:11 in winning the men’s wheelchair race, but it was smashed the next year by Kurt Fearnley of Australia, who set the current record of 1:29:22.
Martin Lel of Kenya won a second laurel wreath in 2007, the day after Ryan Hall ran 2:09:02 to win the U.S. Olympic Team Trials, hosted by NYRR in Central Park. In a front-running tour de force, Radcliffe led from the start and finally dropped Ethiopia’s Gete Wami with 400 meters remaining. In the women’s wheelchair race, Hunkeler smashed her own 2004 course record.
In 2008, Marilson Gomes dos Santos of Brazil won his second title (he’d been a surprise winner in 2006), and defending champion Radcliffe again took the lead from the gun and held on to win her third title; only Grete Waitz has more. Kara Goucher, in third, set an American marathon debut record of 2:25:53.
In 2009, the marathon’s 40th running, Meb Keflezighi became the first American winner since Alberto Salazar’s third win in 1982.
Still more records were set in 2011. Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya blasted away from the fastest field in race history and sliced two minutes and 31 seconds from Tesfaye Jifar’s 2001 record. Amanda McGrory cut two minutes and 14 seconds from Edith Wolf Hunkeler’s women’s wheelchair course mark with her 1:50:24, and Masazumi Soejima became the event’s first-ever Japanese champion when he took the men’s wheelchair race in 1:31:41. The total of 47,340 finishers was a new record, too.
The 2012 New York City Marathon was cancelled due to the effects of Superstorm Sandy. On Sunday, November 4, thousands of runners joined together to run in Central Park, and many others traveled to Staten Island and elsewhere in and around NYC to support recovery efforts. Marathoners were able to choose either a refund of their 2012 entry fee or a guaranteed entry to the 2013, 2014, or 2015 marathon or the 2013 NYC Half.
The 2013 New York City Marathon returned the event to its place as New York City’s best day. 50,266 runners finished the race, a new record.
The 2014 TCS New York City Marathon again had a record number of finishers: 50,530. The event also saw a reimagining of the major urban marathon as a result of the new year-round premier partnership between NYRR and title sponsor Tata Consultancy Services (TCS). The 2015 TCS New York City Marathon had 49,595 finishers, again making it the largest marathon in the world that year.
The 2016 TCS New York City Marathon had a record number of finishers, 51,394, setting a new mark as the world's largest marathon. Ghirmay Ghebreslassie of Eritrea became the youngest male winner in race history; Mary Keitany of Kenya won the women's race for the third consecutive time. Wheelchair champions were Marcel Hug of Switzerland and Tatyana McFadden of the United States (winning the marathon grand slam for the fourth time).
At the 2017 TCS New York City Marathon on Sunday, November 5, 2017, Shalane Flanagan was the first American woman open-division champion in 40 years, crossing the finish line in 2:26:53. Geoffrey Kamworor of Kenya scored his first marathon victory in a time of 2:10:53. Wheelchair champions were Marcel Hug and Manuela Schär, both of Switzerland. The race had 50,773 finishers.
The 2018 TCS New York City Marathon on November 4, 2018, had the largest field in event history, with more than 52,000 finishers. Mary Keitany became the only woman in event history other than nine-time champion Grete Waitz to win the open division four times with her victory, while Ethiopia's Lelisa Desisa took the men's title. In the wheelchair division, Manuela Schär repeated as the women's champion and 20-year-old Daniel Romanchuk became the first American man to win the wheelchair race and the youngest champion in the division's history.